Marla Campbell Professional Dog Breeder & Dog Show Handler

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Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior & Evolution

by Raymond Coppinger & Lorna Coppinger


Marking the first time that dogs have been explained in such detail by eminent researchers, "Dogs" is a work of wide appeal, as absorbing as it is enlightening. Drawing on insight gleaned from forty-five years of raising, training, and studying the behaviors of dogs worldwide, Lorna and Raymond Coppinger explore the fascinating processes by which dog breeds have evolved into their unique shapes and behaviors.

Concentrating on five types of dogs -- modern household dogs, village dogs, livestock-guarding dogs, sled dogs, and herding dogs -- the Coppingers, internationally recognized canine ethologists and consummate dog lovers, examine our canine companions from a unique biological viewpoint. "Dogs" clearly points the way for dog lovers, dog therapists, veterinarians, and all others who deal with dogs to understand their animals from a fresh perspective.

How did the domestic dog become a distinct species from the wolf? Why do different breeds behave differently? Most important, how can we improve the relationship between humans and dogs?

The authors show how dogs' different abilities depend upon the confluence of their nature and nurture -- that both genetics and the environment play equally key roles. They also reveal that many people inadvertently harm their canine companions because they fail to understand dogs' biological needs and dispositions.

"Dogs" is a highly readable biological approach by noted researchers that provides a wealth of new information about the interaction of nature and nurture, and demonstrates how unique dog behavior is in the animal world.

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One of my articles in Dog News met with some concerned response from Saluki breeders. Concerned because, in depicting a certain big winning Saluki, I ended up promoting a TRAD. Do you know what a TRAD is?

A TRAD is a Saluki with "Tremendous Reach And Drive" similar to the dog stacked and moving in profile at the trot. "Well," you might  ask, "what  is wrong  with  that?" According to concerned Saluki breeders, the Saluki is not required to exhibit tremendous reach and drive at the trot. The Saluki must travel long distances at the trot over difficult terrain in an energy-conserving manner prepared always to break into a fast gallop. Exhibiting tremendous reach and drive at the trot in the show ring is believed by some to produce only dramatic appeal.

Judges who award TRADs with Group and Best in Show are of a different opinion. Many believe that the best-angulated Saluki, the one that moves with tremendous reach and drive at the trot, is most likely to also excel at the fast gallop. They believe this is as true for the Saluki as it is for a number  of non-Sighthound  breeds. For those judges, TRADs that were faster, more angulated and more powerful were the contenders for Best of Breed.

The TRAD shown is too heavy overall, has the wrong top-line, wrong line under the body, and has too long a second thigh. Type is affected-does it really look like a Saluki? The acid test is that, if viewed in silhouette, would it immediately be identifiable as a good Saluki? Presented to many Saluki breeders, he failed the test.

I had dozens of examples to choose from, each possessing various levels of moderation, mostly standing in a relaxed pose. However, it was necessary for the purpose of comparison, to depict typical in a formal stack at the angle a judge would make his or her assessment: first in silhouette, then in line. To do so would require improving on reality so I turned first to depicting typical in a relaxed pose.

Marla Campbell dog breeder of Newton, Kansas

Professional Dog Breeder

Code of Ethics

To promote the highest ideals among dog owners and breeders and aim for the continuous improvement of the breed within the framework of the approved breed standard, I pledge that:

  1. I will follow the rules of good sportsmanship which will be a credit to the breed, the club and myself in all dog competition and activities.
  2. I will fully explain to all prospective dog purchasers the advantages as well as the disadvantages of owning the breed.
  3. I will attempt to help and educate novice exhibitors and owners.
  4. I will keep well informed in the field of genetics and work to eliminate hereditary defects from the breed.
  5. I will, before entering a breeding agreement or doing any breeding of my own dogs, carefully analyze the conformation and pedigrees of the prospective sire and dam. I shall refuse the mating if, in my opinion, it will not be in the best interest of the breed. If I deny stud service, I will fully explain my reasons to the owner of the adult breeding female.
  6. I will participate in a program of having my breeding dogs examined by qualified and licensed veterinarians to eliminate common genetic defects from my bloodlines.
  7. When a dog has hereditary faults of such nature as to make his or her use for breeding detrimental to the furtherance of the breed, that dog shall not be bred.
  8. I will refuse to sell my dogs or puppies to anyone who has been convicted of cruelty to animals.
  9. I shall provide my breeding adults and puppies with the very best veterinary care.
  10. I shall administer the optimum feeding program utilizing premium dog foods recommended by my veterinarian.
  11. I shall administer the daily socialization and exercise program as developed by my veterinarian for my adult dogs and puppies.
  12. I shall continue to show my breeding dogs in ACA sanctioned dog shows.

ACA Dog Show Rules and Awarded Points

ACA Conformation Dog Show Rules To earn the title of Champion a dog must:

• Earn a total of twenty (20) cumulative points.

• Participate in a minimum of three (3) shows.

• Be awarded Major points by at least two (2) different judges.

• Earn a Major in at least two (2) different shows.

• Two (2) points must come from a certified veterinarian clearing the dog of at least one (1) congenital defect.

• A maximum of six (6) points can be obtained from a certified veterinarian by having a Health Certification Form (ask your ACA representative for this form) completed and submitted to an ACA representative.

• Separate shows (Puppy class) are held for canines less than six (6) months old.

• No points will be awarded for show participation for dogs less than six (6) months old.

The remainder of the points will come from sanctioned ACA conformation dog shows. The dogs will be judged to the Foundation Standard of the Breed. The judge(s) will place the dogs that best represent the Breed Class, Group Class & Best in Show. The class/point system is as follows:

Best of Opposite

Within a breed, if there are at least three (3) dogs of one (1) sex and at least one (1) of the opposite sex, the breed will be split and judged separately by sex first. The winner of each side will then be judged against the winner of the opposite sex. The winner from those two will be awarded Best of Breed, the looser will be awarded Best of Opposite.

Best of Breed Points

The winner of Best of Breed can earn between one (1) and five (5) points based on the number of other canines competing in that breed. The winner of Best of Breed will earn one (1) point for each canine in the ring up to a maximum of five (5) points i.e. If there are three (3) canines in the ring including the winner, the winner will earn three (3) points.


To earn a Major, a dog must compete against and defeat at least two (2) other canines in the Breed, Group or Show class. Multiple Majors can be earned in a single show, however, to earn Champion status, a dog must earn a Major in at least two (2) different shows and under at least (2) different ACA Judges. Best of Opposite does not award a Major regardless of the number of canines defeated.

The highest number of points awarded at any conformation show per canine is 10 points. The points will carry to the dog's permanent record and accumulate from each show to equal a total of 20 points for the Championship. All Judge's decisions are final. If there is only one dog per breed and/or group, the dog will still be judged to the Foundation Standard of the Breed and receive the minimum point(s) for that class and move on to the next class.

Once a dog has achieved Champion status, that dog can only compete in Grand Champion shows.

To earn the title of Grand Champion a dog must:

• Already be recognized as an ACA Champion.

• Have at least one (1) offspring that is recognized as an ACA Champion.

• Earn a total of fifty (50) cumulative points.

• The points earned to reach ACA Champion status count towards the fifty (50) cumulative total. Rules for Judges

• A judge cannot judge a dog owned in part or whole by an immediate family member (spouse, child, step-child, parent, step-parent, child's spouse or parent's spouse) or judge a dog handled by an immediate family member. However, an immediate family member can handle and/or have a dog they own in part or whole in a separate show held by the club on the same day under a different non-related judge.

• A judge cannot show a canine and/or handle a dog shown in a conformation show on the same day they are judging a conformation show. They can judge a Grand Champion show and enter a conformation show on the same day OR judge a conformation show and enter a Grand Champion show on the same day.

• Each judge is responsible for signing the record form for each dog judged after each breed, group and show is finished. This will mean up to 3 signatures from a judge on a form if a dog wins Best in Breed and Best in Group.

The record forms are to be held by the Event Organizer between and after each show. If a judge needs a copy of a record form, they can request that from the Event Organizer. Additionally, judges are permitted to take electronic photographs of the judge's signed record sheets of the events they officiated.

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